Restic is an open source backup program. I really like Restic’s design goals, so I chose to try Restic for backing up my computer at home. Restic is still a young project and it was (for me) somewhat difficult to figure out the right way the utilize it. I wrote down my approach – maybe it’ll be useful for someone else in the future. So here’s a how-to describing a Restic setup on a Mac. This is neither a recommended setup nor a guideline, but may give useful ideas for your own setup.
My objective is to have a reliable, automatic backup process for my Mac at home. There’s around 500GB of data to backup to a network drive on the same LAN. I also want to make an off-site backup over WAN but, to keep things simple, the plan is to use rsync to copy the Restic repository, instead of utilizing Restic in that part of the process.
What To Back Up?
I want to backup data only, such as photos that I’ve taken and that can’t be replaced if lost. I chose not to do a full backup, so I’ll exclude e.g. the operating system, installed applications, and purchased media that can be replaced or re-downloaded from the vendor. I’ll backup the data that resides in my home folder:
- /Applications (for the few app-specific settings)
- /Movies (my GoPro stuff lives here)
- /Music/GarageBand (most of Music is .mp3’s but I’m only backing up my own projects)
At first I thought I’d make an include-list containing the folders I want in the backup. Restic supports includes and excludes, but the way the support is currently done, it’s easier to include the whole home folder and then exclude some folders. This is probably better anyway, because new subfolders will be included in the backup by default, and you don’t need to remember to add the new folder to the includes list for backups.
I found it the easiest to list the home dir contents and use the result as the basis for the excludes file, which turned out along these lines:
$ ls -a1 ~/ *.DS_Store *.swp .Trash .Xauthority .bash_sessions [...] Music/**/*.mp3 Music/**/*.jpg Music/**/*.png
Step 1: Initialize
Restic’s user manual is a great source, and describes clearly how to install the program.
My network drive is mounted simply as an SMB share. I decided to create a folder called restic for the backups. Then I figured that because Restic supports SFTP repositories, I might share that space with friends for their off-site backup needs. So I made a subfolder for my own backups: restic/jussi. My first idea was to name the backup folder by device, so I would have something like /laptop, /imac, and /raspberry but then I realised it’s better to back up all devices to the same folder. This is because Restic’s repository structure already distinguishes different hosts, and because there may be even greater de-duplication if all data goes to the same repository. So here we go:
$ ./restic init --repo /Volumes/restic/jussi
Step 2: Environment
Restic encrypts backup data so repository access requires a key. To avoid inputing the password or configuring it in multiple scripts, I simply stored my password to a local plaintext file. The password secures the backed up data in the (remote) repository. In the local system, if one can access the plaintext password file, they can access the filesystem anyway. So even if it feels wrong to store passwords as plaintext, I assume it’s ok here.
$ cat mypassword > repo_pwd.txt
Step 3: Testing
Let’s try it out. Back up a bit of data:
$ ./restic -r /Volumes/restic/jussi -p repo_pwd.txt backup --exclude-file exclude.txt ~/Music/GarageBand
See what went to the repository:
$ ./restic -r /Volumes/restic/jussi -p repo_pwd.txt snapshots
Ok, looks good. I would have liked to browse the repository but didn’t have FUSE installed and Restic’s WebDAV support is still pending (restic#485) so I just did a restore:
$ ./restic -r /Volumes/restic/jussi -p repo_pwd.txt restore bcd46723 --target ~/temp/test
Step 4: Full Initial Backup
$ nice -n 10 ./restic -r /Volumes/restic/jussi -p repo_pwd.txt backup --exclude-file exclude.txt --one-file-system --tag initial /Users/jussi
I probably won’t be deleting much of the data once it’s backed up. I tend to save all pics and videos for some obscure future use. Therefore I used the initial tag for the snapshot to help later, when devising a policy for deleting old backups.
This step took many hours. I think the bottleneck was my LAN capacity. At this point, Restic reports that there are 411GiB to back up. After the process finished, I did
$ du -hc -d 1 /Volumes/restic/jussi
to find out the repository size but got weird numbers well over terabytes (possibly because it’s an SMB share?). So, instead, I opened a Finder window with total size field turned on, and now the repository size was reported as 301GB. Interesting.
Step 5: Housekeeping i.e. Forget and Prune
To save disk space, I set up a process for deleting old backups periodically. My mindset here is that if a file is changed on my computer, it’s also changed in the backup. There won’t be multiple versions of the file or kind of undo-feature for deleted files. However, I think it saves so much time and bandwidth that it’s worthwhile to keep the initial backup and build on that.
The Restic flow is to first forget snapshots from the index and then actually delete the data from disk using prune.
$ /restic -r /Volumes/restic/jussi -p repo_pwd.txt forget --keep-tag initial --keep-weekly 2
$ ./restic -r /Volumes/restic/jussi -p repo_pwd.txt prune
Step 6: Automate
Restic is (currently) optimized for fast incremental backups. But prune may be slow. So I’ll do this in two parts: a daily backup and a weekly housekeeping, using launchd.
The weekly housekeeping, or forget and prune, requires running two parts so I made a separate bash script for it. Launchd is then configured to run this script.
$ launchctl load ~/Library/LaunchAgents/local.restic_backup.plist $ launchctl load ~/Library/LaunchAgents/local.restic_housekeeping.plist $ launchctl list | grep -v com.apple. # To see if they loaded properly ... $ launchctl start local.restic_backup # Do a test run
Manually starting the process is a good way to catch launchd errors. If all is well, you should see logging in /tmp/restic.log.
TODO: these processes only log to /tmp. It would be much better to alert if things go wrong, and maybe also report weekly/monthly that things are going ok. Maybe restic#667 will help here.
TODO 2: the backup process is very slow even over a good wifi connection. For the 400GB it took 2 hours 23 minutes. As a matter of fact, it wouldn’t matter if a backup process takes time, but Restic needs to communicate with the repository in a way that renders my LAN slow. One cure could be to force Restic to read the local source data in total and avoid querying the remote repository using –force.
[EDIT] Samba on Mac is s l o w . The –force switch did not help and I almost decided to ditch Restic because the daily backup was just too much for my wifi. But then I found quite a few reports about Apple’s slow SMB implementation. I switched from using Samba to sftp, and the daily backup is now fast and does not clog up my network.
$ cat ~/Library/LaunchAgents/local.restic_backup.plist <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <!DOCTYPE plist PUBLIC "-//Apple//DTD PLIST 1.0//EN" "http://www.apple.com/DTDs/PropertyList-1.0.dtd"> <plist version="1.0"> <dict> <key>Label</key> <string>local.restic_backup</string> <key>WorkingDirectory</key> <string>/Users/jussi/restic</string> <key>ProgramArguments</key> <array> <string>./restic</string> <string>-r</string> <string>/Volumes/restic/jussi</string> <string>-p</string> <string>repo_pwd.txt</string> <string>backup</string> <string>--exclude-file</string> <string>exclude.txt</string> <string>--one-file-system</string> <string>/Users/jussi</string> </array> <key>StandardOutPath</key> <string>/tmp/restic.log</string> <key>StandardErrorPath</key> <string>/tmp/restic.log</string> <key>StartCalendarInterval</key> <dict> <key>Hour</key> <integer>12</integer> <key>Minute</key> <integer>0</integer> </dict> <key>Nice</key> <integer>10</integer> </dict> </plist>
$ cat ~/Library/LaunchAgents/local.restic_housekeeping.plist <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <!DOCTYPE plist PUBLIC "-//Apple//DTD PLIST 1.0//EN" "http://www.apple.com/DTDs/PropertyList-1.0.dtd"> <plist version="1.0"> <dict> <key>Label</key> <string>local.restic_housekeeping</string> <key>WorkingDirectory</key> <string>/Users/jussi/restic</string> <key>ProgramArguments</key> <array> <string>./housekeeping.sh</string> </array> <key>StandardOutPath</key> <string>/tmp/restic.log</string> <key>StandardErrorPath</key> <string>/tmp/restic.log</string> <key>StartCalendarInterval</key> <dict> <key>Weekday</key> <integer>7</integer> <key>Hour</key> <integer>15</integer> <key>Minute</key> <integer>0</integer> </dict> <key>Nice</key> <integer>10</integer> </dict> </plist>
$ cat housekeeping.sh #!/bin/bash ./restic -r /Volumes/restic/jussi -p repo_pwd.txt forget --keep-tag initial --keep-weekly 2 ./restic -r /Volumes/restic/jussi -p repo_pwd.txt prune